The 28-year-old Cabrera was placed on the 15-day disabled list following Thursday night's 8-2 loss to the Angels. He previously spent more than three weeks on the disabled list in April with a similar injury, but the discomfort has not gone away.
A timetable for Cabrera's return to the lineup will not be known until the Blue Jays figure out what type of treatment is required. It wasn't immediately known whether Cabrera would require surgery or if rest and rehab would be the next step.
Cabrera is hitting .279 with three homers and 30 RBIs in 88 games this season. Rajai Davis and Emilio Bonifacio will split time in left field during Cabrera's absence from the lineup.
Right-hander Dustin McGowan also underwent an MRI on Friday afternoon, but the results of his evaluation remained unknown several hours later. McGowan was placed on the 15-day DL earlier this week with a strained oblique muscle suffered during a game in Oakland.
Gregor Chisholm is a reporter for MLB.com. Read his blog, North of the Border, and follow him on Twitter @gregorMLB. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.